In act 2 scene 2, Aeneas’ tale alludes to many aspects in Hamlet’s life. Another interpretation of the tale may resemble the death of King Hamlet.
The player starts off by saying “Anon he finds him//Striking too short at Greeks” (453-454). The player is speaking of Priam at this moment, who resembles King Hamlet. Priam is currently in battle with the Greeks at this moment. King Hamlet also battles against Fortinbras of Norway and manages to kill him. However, that attack is “too short” to reach young Fortinbras, who may come back for vengeance later in the play. Another character Pyrrhus may represent Claudius. In the tale, Pyrrhus slays Priam. As the First Player states, Pyrrhus and Priam are “unequal[ly] matched” (456). A piece of Claudius’ character is revealed by Shakespeare—he is ruthless, savage, and overwhelmingly powerful. Even his “wind of his [missed] sword [attack]” (458) is able to finish off his target.
Denmark is able to feel the loss of their highly-praised King Hamlet as he falls. Denmark seems “to feel this blow, with a flaming top” (460). The loss of the king places a country at risk of revolution and invasions. Without King Hamlet, events in Denmark will blaze up like fire. One example is uncle Fortinbras’ secret army to attack Denmark. Also, with the loss of a king, Claudius assumes the throne “as a painted tyrant Pyrrhus stood” (465). However, Denmark may not benefit at all from this enthronement. The First Player says that Phyrrus “did nothing” (467) indicating that Claudius is not a good king. But this brings up to the point: what Claudius’ goals are. He wants power, fame, glory, and the queen, but all of that will be gone if there is no action done as king. If only the queen were not there, he would stand unchallenged. This could be foreshadowing queen Gertrude’s death and the taking “away [of] her power” (479). The method of this death will be so sudden as if “down the hill of heaven, [plunging] as low as to [hell]” (481). By foreshadowing these events, Shakespeare portrays Claudius as a power hungry fiend.
The resemblances between Aenea’s tale and the world in which Hamlet currently resides in are almost identical. It is almost as if the tale is the path the play of Hamlet will follow.
Wednesday, March 26, 2008
In act 2 scene 2, Aeneas’ tale alludes to many aspects in Hamlet’s life. Another interpretation of the tale may resemble the death of King Hamlet.
December 8, 2007
Racism does play a major role in the story. I agree that Grant responds in the same way to Dr. Joseph as his students do to him. It is because of authority and race as well. Dr. Joseph becomes angry when Grant requests for supplies. His mood changes from complements to criticism. Then a problem about hygiene is brought up. Grant states that “some of these children have never seen a toothbrush before…” (57). Grant knows how the world works. He knows that whites have more authority than blacks during the time.
I agree with both of the ways you view Jefferson Quan. Because of the way my mind works, I would understand Jefferson not caring more than the religious allusion. Why does Jefferson join the group of robbers anyway? I thought that Jefferson was an obedient and innocent child, and thus having condemned to death, lost any will to fight. Quan, you brought up the image of a hog again with the quote in your last paragraph. Hog is used to both justify and deface Jefferson. Back in the first chapter, Jefferson’s attorney says that he “would just as soon put a hog in the electric chair as this” (8). Here, the attorney is trying to justify that nothing would come from killing an intelligent man. This comparison at the same time portrays blacks as low, inferior animals.
“He had said the same thing the year before, and he had called me Higgins then too. And the year before that he had said the same thing, but he had called me Washington then. At least he was getting closer to my real name” (56). I believe that this passage foreshadows a change in the respects towards blacks, or at least Grant. He is getting closer to be called by his real name, Wiggins. A name signifies a man, not an animal such as a hog. However Higgins is not Grant’s real name, and therefore he is not a complete man yet.
Jefferson on the other hand, falls to eating like an animal. In a way this can signify man as well as animal. Having not eaten for a period of time, taking food is what both man and animal perform. He does not eat any corn, which Jefferson says that “hogs eat” (82). Grant even says “You’re not a hog, you’re a man” (83). Again here is another comparison between hog and man. Are there any other similarities between them?
Grant’s attitude towards Jefferson seems to have changed from the beginning of the novel. He does not complain as much as he did. Jefferson is more open to others now as well.
December 15, 2007
I agree that they are not the ones disrespecting Jefferson, but it is him that is at fault. As Quan stated, Emma and Tante and Ambrose all treat Jeff with respect; they bring him food, new clothes, and try to cheer him up in various ways. Grant’s reason for visiting Jeff is Vivian too. “It’s she who keeps me coming here. Not your nannan, not my aunt. Vivian. If I didn’t have Vivian, I wouldn’t be in this damn hole” (130). Vivian is a strong driving for Grant to stay in town as well as visit Jefferson. Jefferson is the one who is disrespectful; he doesn’t answer to Miss Emma or even look at her. Matt may have taken the slapping as the disrespect given to him. However, I believe that is justified due to Jeff’s attitude.
Grant and Vivian think of names for their future children, but are Vivian’s current children ever mentioned? I’m guessing that they hold no importance to Grant, as all he wants is Vivian, not her children. Any ideas? As for Quan’s question, I believe that the oppressed black community is what Grant doesn’t want for his children. Having grown up in such an era, maybe he doesn’t want his children to experience the same hardships. He wants to run away to a better community for his future.
In that same chapter, when Grant and Vivian come home, the church ladies arrived too. They question Vivian about her background and religion. Tante Lou asks questions: “How about your own folks?” (114), “You go to church?” (114), or “You go’n leave your church?” (114). Vivian is catholic and a mulatto. Earlier in the book, mulattos were compared to darker skinned people. The mulatto community is supposedly higher ranked than the blacks. This dividing line is also recognized by Tante Lou when she says “they don’t like dark-skin people” (114). After long interrogation, the church ladies conclude that Vivian is a “lady of quality” (116). They constantly repeat that she is a quality woman as she leaves. It is because she is catholic and believes in God, thus sharing many believes with the church ladies. She goes to church every Sunday and earns the respect of fellow religious members.
December 15, 2007
Grant also notices that Jefferson “had lost some weight. What had been a round, smooth face when he first came here was beginning to show some bone structure. His eyes were still bloodshot” (138). This shows that Jefferson has already started his march towards death. Soon after, Grant questions Jefferson about obligation and love. Jeff, however, replies and says that he is not a “youman” (139) –translated into human. I agree with Quan that there is a change in both characters as well as the conversation topics. Jeff is “the one go’n have to sit down” (139). This pun is sarcastic. Grant says that Emma has a place to sit out in the dayroom, and Jeff replies that he is the one that is going to sit—that is, in the electric chair. Grant has also come over a great change since the beginning. He doesn’t “want to hurt those [he loves]. [He] wants to help those people as much as [he] can” (129). In this moment, Grant talks maturely and seems to have learned a bit about living as a man. He knows now, and tells Jeff, “to live as well as I can every day and not hurt people. Especially people who love me, people who have done so much for me, people who have sacrificed for me” (129). Because Grant learns a bit about life, he can teach Jefferson how to live life well, conquering his previous problem of not knowing how to live as a man.
Also, the topic of Jesus comes up within their conversation. The executors were “fattening [Jeff] up for Christmas. Kill him at Christmastime” (140). A while back, Quan brought up the allusion to the Last Supper. Jefferson attempts to teach this to Miss Emma too, on page 112. Jesus eats his last supper before he is crucified. Jeff, a representation of Jesus, knows that when he eats his all, the only thing that follows is death.
In chapter 19, Jefferson’s relationship with Jesus is hinted once again. “After ‘Silent Night,’ the choir sang ‘O Little Town of Bethlehem’” (147). This is foreshadowing Jeff’s fate. Jeff’s early stages after conviction are full of silence. He was silent and would barely talk to anyone, including Grant, who he talks most openly to as of right now. Now, after that stage is over, the plot heads to Bethlehem. Bethlehem is the setting of Nativity. Coming out from silence, Jeff will emerge as a savior, one who will represent the black community with pride.
December 16, 2007
I also noticed Jefferson’s moment of happiness. He actually smiled, “and it was not a bitter smile” (170). I agree with Quan that this is his “last supper” as it “would be on that last day” (171). Because Jefferson smiled, it shows that he has undergone a significant change. He is ready to be a savior now. He wants food, human food, not corn or any other food for hogs. It is this small moment when he shows his true feelings because it’s the first good thing that happened to him since he was jailed. Notice that this is happening on Friday, the day he and Jesus die, if that holds any significance.
About Stella’s child, I agree with Quan about Mary and the star in the sky. This can refer back to the statement made earlier about Jefferson’s revival (reborn). Perhaps this child is able to take on Jefferson’s path and continue to help change the community.
The scene in the store of the woman and Grant is a great example of racism. I do not think that the same thing would happen if Grant were to be a white man. After all, the woman paid more attention to the white customer that walks in when Grant was about to pay. I also found something interesting while Grant plays around with the radio on the shelf. He “could only find three, two in Baton Rouge and one in New Orleans. But that was normal for this time of day. At night you were able to tune in others. You could get one as far west as Del Rio, Texas, and another as far as Nashville” (175). I related the day-time as the current timeframe of the community right now. As of right now, Grant and Jefferson do not seem to reach many people, but perhaps later in the novel, there will be a change. More people will become influenced and will change. Radios obtain their stations by frequency waves. Getting only three close ones must mean that there is interference in the air blocking father waves. I believe that the interference in Jeff’s case are the white people who look down on him. It foreshadows the weakening of their power. Any ideas?
Gaines spends a paragraph talking about the word “here”. He says that the word “here” was one that an elder would say to someone when handing something precious and hard-earned to him. “When will all this end? When will a man not have to struggle to have money to get what he needs ‘here’? When will a man be able to live without having to kill another man ‘here’?” (174). Grant is still not mature enough to handle his own problems. However, not everyone is able to overcome problems by themselves; friends are there to provide help. Accepting help now is a way to help a man grow. He will learn from it and work until he does not need help. A man does not want to be shamed by pleading to others for aid more than once. Why do you guys think Gaines spends a paragraph on this word?
December 26, 2007
“He needs God in that cell, and not that sin box” (181). Reverend Ambrose yells at Grant saying that Jefferson needs God. It may be a bit late, but I noticed that throughout the novel Reverend Ambrose acts as an opposite of Grant. Ambrose always opposed Grant’s methods. He did not approve of the radio because it entranced Jefferson in sin music. The only music that would be approved is sermon or holy music. Ambrose is always left out; he’s “the one that’s not needed” (183). He feels inferior because Jefferson “he can’t hear [Ambrose] through that wall of sin” (183). “He, the minister, thought that since Jefferson had only a short time left to live, it should be he in control, and not [Grant]” (196). Grant is the only person Jeff is open towards.
The word “hog” shows up again in chapter 23. Grant says that “you can take [the radio] from him. But you won’t reach him if you do” (183). Grant is addressing Ambrose in this sentence, and Ambrose represents God. If God takes away the radio, “the only thing that keeps him from thinking he is not a hog” (183), there will be nothing but a hog. As Jeff would say, ‘music is for youmans’. With the radio, Jefferson is more of a human—he wants ice cream and write in a notebook. I wonder what would happen if he were to return to the hog state. Would Grant’s work be for null?
I also noticed that talk about soul pops out here again. I think that it disappeared throughout the middle of the novel. Why does it appear out again now? Is it because Reverend Ambrose suddenly makes another appearance? God always follows the followers of the church, and thus salvation of the soul comes along with it. I believe this shows that God or Ambrose had little impact on Jeff. Most of the influence was from Grant—not God.
Trains. In Henry Ferrini’s Polis Is This, the train station scene is an image imprinted in my mind. In the scene, a message scrolled across the digital display on the platform: “You’re your own train. You’re your own tracks. You can go anywhere”. I have not actually been on the commuter rail before. For my project I decided to film a video conveying the possibilities and tracks a typical person can take in life. I decided to work with Quan Tran and Kevin Tang; collaboration was required to meet the deadline in time
While watching the train scene in Polis is This, I wanted to find more about the train that leads into
The internet was the best resource I could afford to use to research about the commuter rail. Observing the actual train itself was not within the limits of my schedule. We combined individual research and then initiated on the project. The general public may call it the purple line because of its color co-ordinance as with the colored subway lines. Well, that’s what I called it. It appears that the MBTA commuter rail started operating in 1974. It runs on tracks from the 19th century owned by the
My group’s video, “Endless Stops” portrays an uncaring eighteen year old, Quan, who learns a life lesson. First, we came up with our title “Endless Stops” because we wanted it to relate to trains. This title is ironic as well, as many teens such as Quan come to certain stops in life. In the first scene, Quan wakes up in a cluttered manner to walk over to the mirror and judge himself. While browsing the web, Quan’s brother, unnamed, yells at Quan to progress in life. Quan is the only character that has a name in this production, as we want the focus on him. Tracking back to the title, people can take many paths in life. Some, like Quan, may take detours and possibly end up at a different destination. Dialogue incorporates train-relevant phrases such as, “Stop being so stationary,” and, “stop being so stationary”. Open to interpretation, the audience may find limitless meanings. The protagonist Quan ultimately comes to an epiphany while waiting for the commuter rail. In the final scene, a mysterious figure, possibly a representation of god or his conscience, lectures Quan about life with an analogy to trains. This figure, me, briefly talks about the commuter rail to Quan, before I slam a newspaper in his face. Almost coincidentally, this newspaper contained an image of a train as with other moments of the film. This figure vanishes after indicating that Quan must “start his engines” and move in life.
Stopping is part of life. Death is ultimately one of the final stops. Our film, “Endless Stops”, was inspired by the message of endless tracks in life and the endless stops there are. As long as one keeps moving onward, a destination will be reached. Quan is inspired by the mysterious figure at the train station, demonstrating how a small event has the power to influence one’s thoughts. A person can choose to stop or continue traveling on the tracks of endless possibilities.
Hamlet’s act 3 scene 1 soliloquy is best portrayed by Kenneth Branagh in the third video. Each of the videos brought out the emotion and feelings inside Hamlet with scenery, camera angle, and an orchestrated background. Branagh however, makes the audience feel Hamlet’s very emotions with his tone of voice and hand gestures. The scene reveals that Hamlet examines his sanity, ambition, and slight desire to commit suicide.
Hamlet begins his soliloquy with the famous “To be, or not to be? That is the question—” (55). Hamlet here questions whether he wants to live or commit suicide. The scene starts with Branagh standing and staring at the mirror, standing up with legs together and hands at his sides. There is no music or any other sound to concentrate on Hamlet’s speech. In a monotonous, calm, and passionate voice, he speaks to himself in a mirror—his reflection. This is to ascertain what others view him as. Hamlet may wish to know “whether ‘tis nobler in the mind to suffer/the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune” (56-57). He wishes to test his composure with his current confused state of mind. Hamlet is also referring to Claudius at this point—to hide his feelings on the “mirror” side or to “take arms against” (58) and “by opposing, end” (59) him. When he says this defensive line, a fist is raised as if it is clenched exert anger or threaten. This gesture helps portray Hamlet’s feelings of anger and turbulence against Claudius.
Soon after Hamlet starts speaking about sleep and death, how death is merely a sleep that frees the “flesh” of “heart-ache” and “natural shocks” (61). Then he says that there may lie a problem with dreaming in this eternal sleep. The camera does something very interesting during most of his speech. Near the beginning of the speech, Branagh walks slowly step by step towards the large mirror. The camera follows him, focusing mainly on the mirror. The image reflected is the “mirror” image of a person, bounded with all hidden emotions not shown in the real world. Thus the reflection will be considered a dream. As Branagh and the camera get closer to the mirror, so does the reflection. This scene helps foreshadow that someone is going to be killed “in that sleep of death” as no one knows what “dreams may come” (65). Eerie music begins to play as he begins describing the scorns of the world. At last “with a bare bodkin” (75) Hamlet draws his dagger and points to his reflection. He asks himself “who would fardels bear,/to grunt and sweat under a weary life” (75-76). Claudius jolts up on the sight of the dagger, almost scared. Perhaps he knows Hamlet keeps it waiting to impale him one day. Staring at his reflection, he tests his ambition for revenge and his will to live on to carry it out. Inside, Hamlet is scared and confused. He may want to end it all with a quiet death. This is all reflected in the mirror. However, it is shown that Hamlet has the “resolution” (83) when Branagh taps his dagger against the mirror, to establish that the “dream-state” is not yet real. His resolution is clear however, as the camera is fixed on the ambitions of his “mirror” self. Hamlet will not kill himself and he keeps his composure intact. Finishing the soliloquy, Branagh talks sincerely to Ophelia as violins play in the background. His composure is strong and he can hide his deep confusion. It is clear from the way he talks to Ophelia that he cares for her.
The video does well in presenting the true feelings inside Hamlet. He makes a clear decision to follow his ambitions thoroughly. His “will” (79) is no longer paralyzed by any hesitation. Branagh speaks clearly and the suspense is high because the audience is (at least for the beginning) solely listening to his words. The video does an excellent job capturing the emotions and themes of the scene.
In A Portrait of The Artist as a Young Man, James Joyce conceals Stephen’s growth as a man through the disbandment of paternal and maternal forces. Psychoanalysis states that a character develops through different stages of childhood such as oral, anal, and oedipal. Stephen goes through all of these stages to reach his goal of becoming an artist. Joyce integrates Stephen’s desires of a mother’s warmth and sexual desires through imagery and diction. Stephen casts away paternal threats as they instill fear and casts away maternal threats as they divert attention. Recognizing these two forces as inhibitors, Stephen chooses to discard them to pursue his career of writing.
In chapter one Stephen experiences the results of honesty. During class, Father Dolan walks in and “pandies” Stephen for not having his glasses. Stephen honestly says, “I broke my glasses, sir” (62), yet Dolan still punishes him. Here, Stephen tells the truth and is punished for it because Dolan thinks that it is a lie. This may cause dishonesty to grow within him further in the book. Stephen may constantly be punished for honesty, and turn to lies due to frustration. Father Dolan also shatters Stephen’s masculinity here by acting as a paternal figure. By punishing Stephen, fear and hate are implanted.
The breaking of glasses also symbolizes the loss of light. Eyes work by refracting light into the retina. Having bad vision—without glasses—diminishes the ability to catch light. Without vision there is no light. Light represents truth and purity. Without light, there is bound to be darkness, and darkness may imply evil. Stephen does not like the darkness and its consequences. Darkness may also describe a mother’s womb. In fear of punishment by paternal forces, Stephen turns to the warmth of a maternal figure. Joyce conceals Stephen’s desire for a mother at this point in the novel.
However, the rewards of truth come into play when Stephen consults the rector. When glasses are broken, students “must write home for a new pair” (63). A new pair implies the reestablishment of light and truth. This means that mother must come and deliver a new pair of glasses. Joyce implies that Stephen “must” want to be embraced by his mother’s comfortable arms. “Stephen swallowed down the thing again and tried to keep his legs and voice from shaking” (63). He is afraid of humiliation by telling the truth again. However, this time the rector understands and Stephen is “quite right” (63). The punishment earlier in class was because “Father Dolan did not understand” (63). The rector is given the mother-like quality of understanding a child. Stephen also seeks protection from the paternal threat, Dolan. At this moment the rector is able to have a pleasant conversation with one of the children. When he comes out, a party of supporters “made a cradle of their locked and hoisted him up among them and carried him and till he struggled to get free” (64). Stephen learns that telling the truth is good and brings overwhelming joy. He also struggles to get free, depicting the image of birth. Stephen can be seen as being reborn at this point, wriggling out of the womb and into the world.
Stephen indulges himself his true feelings within literature and poetry. When he starts to write a poem, “all those elements which he deemed common and insignificant fell out of the scene” (74). As an artist, one should invent his own original style. A skilled artist is able to pinpoint the smallest, unnoticed aspect of a given scene. Writing poetry entrances him, and his true feelings fall and transform into words on the notebook. Stephen tried to write a poem about Parnell’s death, but “his brain had then refused to grapple with the theme” (74). His hidden artist nature makes him lose focus by lovely image of a girl. His thoughts flow freely out of him: “There remained no trace of the tram itself nor the trammen nor of the horses; nor did he and she appear vividly” (74). It is this mother that vaguely appears in Stephen’s mind. Love begins to fill his adolescent mind with thoughts of girls and kisses. A mother is able to supply both. When Stephen goes to sleep, he is kissed by his mother goodnight. Not able to express feelings in reality, “some undefined sorrow was hidden in the hearts of the protagonists” (74). He knows that he cannot have such thoughts about his own mother. A mother is loved and cannot be touched in a defiling way. However, Stephen is allowed to freely express himself in his poetry.
When Stephen begins to write his poem, he begins by writing “the initial letters of the Jesuit motto: A.M.D.G” (73). It is “from force of habit” (73). He also writes the letters L.D.S. at the foot of the page. Joyce cleverly conceals Stephen’s desire for a mother bordered by Jesuit mottos. Stephen blindly believes in his religion as a given. Earlier in the novel, because Stephen believes what he is told, he condemns his relationship with Eileen. He is scared by the poem Dante reads to him, and shuts himself. Dante’s action also signifies that Stephen is too young to take up the father role. Soon after, he huddles to his mother for comfort. It is because of her that Stephen writes the Jesuit mottos. He is constantly reminded of the fear of fatherhood.
Throughout the novel, Joyce implements the need of a maternal figure. The need for a mother or womb is a stage that Stephen goes through to become a man. The character E— C— is a spiritualized form in which Stephen can dote upon, almost as a scapegoat for his desires. Joyce uses diction to show that Stephen at the moment is in search of a mother’s warmth.
Early in the novel, Stephen meets a girl at a party and seems to be exited by her. Stephen’s “heart danced upon her movements like a cork upon a tide” (73). Stephen clearly wants this object in front of him. A person’s heart will almost always speed up when something he desires is within reach. Soon after, “he heard what her eyes said to him…and knew that in some dim past, whether in life or in revery, he had heard their tale before” (73). This “tale” from the eyes signifies the warmth of a mother’s look. Stephen feels the resemblance in the eyes that takes him back to his mother. It is mother that he truly desires.
Stephen also learns to distinguish between pairs of different objects. “As a man, he separates women into two types, one of which is idealized and loved but cannot be defiled by sex, while the other is sexually approachable but can never be respected” (Brivic 287). Nothing is described of E— C— but her eyes and clothing. By subtracting the name and body, Stephen turns her into an untouchable being. E— C— is also a spiritual medium that fulfills a bit of both types. She represents a woman who is idealized and loved—the mother—but also at the same time she is a source of sexual release. In this scene “he had only to stretch out his hand” to touch her, but “he stood listlessly in his place” (73). He “knew that he had yielded to them a thousand times” (73). Stephen cannot touch the object of desire in front of him, as it symbolizes his mother, something familiar to him. Here, Stephen innately shows his artist side. An artist is “a tranquil watcher of the scene before him” (73). As an artist, finding an eccentric image to work on is essential. To Stephen, watching serene objects would be enough to stimulate his artist spirit.
The unconscious mind of Stephen dictates his actions that imply a need for a mother. Stephen later sits at his desk to write a poem to E— C—. Joyce hides implements Stephen’s love for writing within this “love spurt”. His affection towards this woman activates his artist nature. By his conscious desire for girls, Stephen unconsciously walks toward being an artist. The poem ends with that “was given by both” (74). Earlier in the novel, Stephen was asked whether he kisses his mother or not. The achievement of this kiss supports his love for his mother. In this fictional piece, created by a writer, an artist, Stephen is able to map out his fantasies. After he ends his poem, Joyce has him enter “his mother’s bedroom” (74) and stares into the mirror on her dressing table. Jacques Lacan’s mirror stage applies here. It states that during this mirror stage the person will want to compete with another for the same object. In this case, Stephen is in competition with his father over his mother’s affection. On another note, the image of a mother’s womb emerges here. Stephen enters his mother’s bedroom, which can be viewed as a womb. Stephen’s wanting to go back into the womb means that he needs this warmth and touch of a mother.
In a mother’s presence, a child is safe and protected. Stephen wants to be embraced and kissed as well as back into the womb of the mother. The womb is shielded by a mother’s skin and tissue, protecting the child. He is not ready to be a man as of yet, and thus he seeks the protection of a mother figure. Children need mothers to clean, bathe, and feed them because they are not able to themselves. Stephen is infatuated with E— C— because he can see his mother in her. A mother’s supporting role is to guide the child into adulthood. Stephen is inspired by this maternal figure to write—what he will decide to do when he grows up.
James Joyce points out that when in a woman’s arms, one feels warm and safe like a child. Because of their touch, Stephen’s masculinity is diminished. Throughout the course of the novel, Stephen tries to break free of his maternal desire. He is able to sustain his sexual desires by limiting himself to watching them. An artist should neither touch nor speak to his object of focus. Stephen is able to keep his masculinity by avoiding contact with women.
Joyce describes a standing midstream on the beach as Stephen walks around. “She seemed like one whom magic had changed into the likeness of a strange and beautiful bird” (155). By transforming into an animal, the girl is less feminine and will have less impact on Stephen. Joyce describes her bare legs, almost as if it were tempting Stephen. Even though the girl is said to be birdlike, “her long fair hair was girlish; and girlish and touched with the wonder of mortal beauty, her face” (155). Joyce reestablishes the fact that she is a person—a woman. This “girlish” quality is what attracts Stephen. According to Sigmund Freud’s phallic stage, a child tries to find a phallic characteristic on women. When a child learns that his mother is different than himself, he will try to take that difference away. By focusing on “her long slender bare legs” (155) as this phallic characteristic, Stephen transforms the girl into a person who he is familiar with. It is the beauty of a girl. Stephen’s admiration is so immense that “she felt his presence and the worship of his eyes” (155). This demonstrates his concentration on studying the beauty of his subject, an artist’s subject.
At this point, Stephen realizes that he should not touch women, or sin. Stephen commits his sin by going to prostitutes. It is a way for him to satisfy his sexual desires. However, later in the novel, after Father Arnall’s sermons, Stephen becomes extremely frightened. He becomes deeply religious and stays away from all forms of sexual activity. In this state, he is locked up in his room, desperately praying for salvation. The girl on the beach teaches Stephen that neither of these paths are good—he must take on the middle path. The path of sin and prostitutes is a way for Stephen to be masculine, but it is too much and he is scared of hell. The path of religion is seen to be feminine, castrating his masculinity. The skirts that priests wear are taken as a female characteristic which Stephen does not want. This links to the myth of Daedalus and Icarus. Stephen represents Icarus and must stick to the middleway—not to fall too deep into sin or too high into religion. In the scene on the beach, Stephen turns “away from her” (156), away from sin. Having already rejected the offer of a priestly role by the church director, he will not stray far into religious matters. By turning away from a girl, Stephen establishes his manhood. Even though “his cheeks were aflame; his body was aglow; his limbs were trembling” (156), he resisted the temptation in order to walk toward his career.
Joyce states that “her image had passed into his soul for ever and no word had broken the holy silence of his ecstasy” (156). This striking image of beauty is able to be imprinted on an artist’s mind. According to Suzette Henke, “the aspiring poet knows that he may look but not touch, admire but not speak” (329). Joyce writes:
Her long slender bare legs were delicate as a crane’s and pure save where an emerald trail of seaweed had fashioned itself as a sign upon the flesh. Her thighs, fuller and soft-hued as ivory, were bared almost to the hips where the white fringes of her drawers were like featherings of a soft white down. (155)
By describing her attributes with great detail, an image is painted in the reader’s mind. Joyce implies that with a stunning image of a girl on the beach, Stephen is able to synthesize such meticulous details down to “the white fringes of her drawers” (155). Stephen learns that it is appropriate as an artist to simply look upon an object, admiring it without compromising anything.
Writing allows Stephen to feel free and express his true feelings—it is his art. Stephen learns of the power that a paternal force holds. He is also able to exert any anger from them in writing. An artist is able to change any part he wants of his creation. Writing allows him to alter stories to his liking—he may alter endings to one that appeals to him the most. Women only distracted Stephen from pursuing his dream. To an artist, women are objects of admiration and focus, not lovers or strumpets. By discarding women in such a way, Stephen becomes a man. Without females acting as inhibitors, he is able to defend himself and freely pursue his goals. A mother is no longer required to protect a man who has an ambition. By eliminating maternal and feminine threat, Stephen is permitted to concentrate on art.
In the Plum Plum Pickers, Raymond Barrio demonstrates the importance of pride and what it means to be a man. Barrio sets up the protagonist Manuel as a beastlike work machine through repetition and diction. The tone sways between calm dreamlike scenery to harsh work conditions up to the climax. By establishing an animal state, it is possible to show how Manuel overcomes his cage and turn into a man.
The passage begins with a descriptive paragraph about Manuel and his labor. Manuel thinks, “There had to be an end. There had to be. There—trapped. There had to be a way out. Locked. There had to be respite. Animal” (40). Barrio uses repetition here to demonstrate the seriousness of the situation. The workers are trapped animals that could not find a way out. They were kept in a cage only to work forever. Barrio uses short and descriptive one word sentences. Each of these one word sentences contribute to the animal picture of the workers. The establishment of animals is used for comparison later to the more manlike Manuel. He worked in “the hot dry air. The hot dry air sucking every drop of living moisture from his brute body” (40). Barrio again emphasizes the lack of human treatment here. The use of the word brute degrades the workers even further.
Barrio’s then follows with a one word paragraph, “Lunch” (40). The use of a one word paragraph demonstrates how brief a period of time is to Manuel. Right after that, the tone switches to a relaxed state, touching upon lunchtime and the tranquility of it. Barrio writes “that short rest in the hot shade replenished some of his humor and resolve. He felt his spirit swell out again like a thirsty sponge in water. Then up again. The trees. The branches again” (40). Here, it is almost as if Manuel feels a bit human. The fifth paragraph also states, “
A man can stand up for himself. Regardless of attributes, according to Barrio, “men are built to experience a certain sense of honor and pride. Or else they are dead before they die” (41). Near the climax, the antagonist Roberto Morales is introduced. From his name, he is a robber and a man without morals. Again, Barrio continues with his repetition of shaming the workers. “Their only crime; their only soul grime indeed was that they just didn’t give a shit how that migratory scum lived. It was no concern of theirs. Their wives said it was no concern of theirs…” (41). The laborers are referred to as scum now, not “animal”, not “brute”, and not “savage” (40). Scum is typically referred to a person—a human. The climax of this story is when Manuel has his moment of empowerment. He has pride in his long labor and decides to stand up for himself. Placed next to his superior, he could not help himself but rebel, a normal human characteristic. Seeing Manuel rebel, his fellow workers are inspired and “moved toward their own buckets still standing beside them…and took an ominous position over them, straddling their feet over them” (41). Following someone charismatic is also a trait of humans. The power of unity and pride repelled Morales, “All right. All right, men. I shall take nothing this time” (41). It was through this conflict that Manuel learns “that a man counted for something” (41).
Manuel and his fellow workers are not the same as the animals as describe in the first paragraph anymore. They have a sense of pride now, a sense of humanity and power. Barrio transitions the transformation from animal to man throughout the passage. With pride and friends, a man will always feel “a thrill of power course through his nerves” (41).
I walked down the stairs and opened the door and
She said Ee thank you my pet.
Mum was preparing the food. There was corn apples pineapples onion and turkey on the table and Uncle Alan was watching TV. Football was on and a player just got jumped on by 10 other players faster than dropping four quarters on the floor.
I said Is it time to eat yet?
Mum said No darling I have to finish baking the pie first.
Mums apple pie was sweet and delicious. It tasted good and it was better than any cake or candy. I thought about how dad used to say that her cooking was the best and how he always finished two whole pies himself during thanksgiving.
Uncle Alan came into the kitchen and said Everyones here so lets get rolling.
Mum said OK give me a minute to finish baking.
Then the timer went BEEPBEEPBEEPBEEP like the microwave does when I made popcorn. Then we went to the dining room with the big table and everyone sat down. I sat next to mum and she sat across from Uncle Alan so I could keep an eye on him while I eat look eat look. I looked at everyone and they were waiting for mum to start a prayer.
Mum said We are thankful for the food and life graced to us.
The food was colorful and the turkey was as big as Uncle Alans fat stomach.
We were eating when I went to the bathroom to pee because I drank too much coke. I was washing my hands with cold water when I looked at the mirror and saw dads ghost fly in back of me and I remembered I only had two weeks to kill Uncle Alan.
Dads ghost said Philip you must do kill Uncle Alan tonight.
I said I cant theres too much people around and I dont know how to kill Uncle Alan yet.
Dads Ghost said Theres a sharp knife in the kitchen Philip theres not much time left I cant take the Terrers anymore. Do it tonight.
I went back to the dining room and everyone was laughing and drinking and eating. The food on the table was almost all gone and a dog ran on the table trying to take food off of every plate but was pushed off because it made a big mess.
And then Uncle Alan ate a big piece of orange carrot and his face turned bright red and he screamed only the scream was like dads ghost scream with the volume muted and he was hitting himself in the chest like it was a giant drum and dads ghost was behind him.
He didnt say anything for a while and then he said HELP.
Mum jumped and said Oh my god oh my god.
Dads ghost was at Uncle Alans side smiling and laughing and he couldnt control himself like Joker in Batman when he takes in too much laughing gas. I said in my head that I didnt have to kill him anymore since he was going to die like he was drowning in the sea because he could not breathe.
Dads Ghost said Philip look at him. Dont help him stay in your seat.
I said She will push me off.
Mum was behind Uncle Alan squeezing him as hard as she could like she was giving the worlds hardest hug.
Dads ghost said Philip stop her now. She must not save him.
Take her off.
He must die.
Do it Philip.
Then Mum screamed harder than she barked that night she did it with Uncle Alan and he spit out a carrot the size of a golf ball. He was not choking anymore and he was alive with his face not red anymore and he stopped drumming his chest.
I turned towards dad but he already disappeared into the Terrors.